Ggbiplot R

ggbiplot function - RDocumentatio

pcobj. an object returned by prcomp () or princomp () choices. which PCs to plot. scale. covariance biplot (scale = 1), form biplot (scale = 0). When scale = 1, the inner product between the variables approximates the covariance and the distance between the points approximates the Mahalanobis distance. obs.scale ggbiplot is a R package tool for visualizing the results of PCA analysis. ggplot2 can be directly used to visualize the results of prcomp() PCA analysis of the basic function in R. It can also be grouped by coloring, adding ellipses of different sizes, correlation and contribution vectors between principal components and original variables Active Oldest Votes. 4. As per its repository's README.md under Installation, you need. library (devtools) install_github (vqv/ggbiplot) Edit: Based on your comment, I am running this now in a fresh Docker container of r-base. It works without a hitch: > library (devtools) > install_github (vqv/ggbiplot) Downloading GitHub repo vqv/ggbiplot. Copy and paste the output you get in the console when you run install_github (vqv/ggbiplot). After pasting, select the output and click the little </> button at the top of the posting box to make sure the output is formatted correctly. Copy and paste the console output you get when you try to load the package with library (ggbiplot.

You will learn how to visualize biplot for principal components using ggbiplot() function in R studio. I shall use the bank note data set used in previous tutorial on principal component analysis. Suggestion: Watch this video tutorial to understand data set and principal component analysis — See here How to interpret ggbiplot() visualization of PCA in R? [duplicate] Ask Question Asked 4 years, 10 months ago. Active 4 years, 10 months ago. Viewed 4k times 3 $\begingroup$ This question already has answers here:.

AntonioGPS changed the title Has anybody have success installing ggbiplot under R 3.5.2 Has anybody had success installing ggbiplot under R 3.5.2 Jan 24, 2019. Copy link spookysounds commented Feb 20, 2019. Can confirm the non-experimental version installed successfully for me using the instructions from Readme.md. Copy link. A ggplot2 based biplot. It provides a drop-in replacement for biplot.princomp(). It implements a biplot and scree plot using ggplot2

The R code below set the position of tick marks on the y axis of the box plot. The function scale_y_continuous() and the argument breaks are used to choose where the tick marks appear ggbiplot(mtcars.pca,ellipse=TRUE,obs.scale = 1, var.scale = 1,var.axes=FALSE, labels=rownames(mtcars), groups=mtcars.country) Customize ggbiplot As ggbiplot is based on the ggplot function, you can use the same set of graphical parameters to alter your biplots as you would for any ggplot

R/ggbiplot.r defines the following functions: ggbiplot. rdrr.io Find an R package R language docs Run R in your browser. vqv/ggbiplot A ggplot2 based biplot. Package index. Search the vqv/ggbiplot package. Vignettes. README.md Functions. 5. Source code. 2. Man pages. 3. ggbiplot: Biplot for. Originally posted to plot bpca outpur - but slipt into separate discussion. Dear Andreas, I solved the problem but I am trying to install ggbiplot but everytime I received this message: These packages have more recent versions available. It is recommended to update all of them. Which would you like to update? 1: All 2: CRAN packages only 3: None 4: isoband (0.2.0 -> 0.2.1) [CRAN] Enter one or. linux-64 v0.55. osx-64 v0.55. To install this package with conda run one of the following: conda install -c bioconda r-ggbiplot. conda install -c bioconda/label/gcc7 r-ggbiplot. conda install -c bioconda/label/cf201901 r-ggbiplot PCA Biplot with ggplot2. PCA Biplot with. ggplot2. Produces a ggplot2 variant of a so-called biplot for PCA (principal component analysis), but is more flexible and more appealing than the base R biplot () function. ggplot_pca( x , choices = 1:2 , scale = 1 , pc.biplot = TRUE , labels = NULL , labels_textsize = 3 , labels_text_placement = 1.5. Bioconductor version: Release (3.13) The ggbio package extends and specializes the grammar of graphics for biological data. The graphics are designed to answer common scientific questions, in particular those often asked of high throughput genomics data. All core Bioconductor data structures are supported, where appropriate

I think a way to make it clearer is to adjust the size and position of the labels using the varname.sizeand varname.adjust arguments. However, with a lot of variables it still looks crowded. By increasing the length of the arrows (similar to stats::biplot()), makes it look somewhat better (imo) #.. R can preform PCA very simple command prcomp. The result can visualise using biplot function. ggplot2 is a plotting system for R, it can make very rich graphs using simple command. I want to draw biplot using ggplot2, and found good package ggbiplot. If you interested in that, you can install following command :-). From R command. This R tutorial describes how to change the point shapes of a graph generated using R software and ggplot2 package. Related Book: GGPlot2 Essentials for Great Data Visualization in R Point shapes in R. The different points shapes commonly used in R are illustrated in the figure below PCA Biplot with ggplot2 Description. Produces a ggplot2 variant of a so-called biplot for PCA (principal component analysis), but is more flexible and more appealing than the base R biplot() function.. Usage ggplot_pca( x, choices = 1:2, scale = 1, pc.biplot = TRUE, labels = NULL, labels_textsize = 3, labels_text_placement = 1.5, groups = NULL, ellipse = TRUE, ellipse_prob = 0.68, ellipse_size.

GitHub - vqv/ggbiplot: A biplot based on ggplot

ggbiplot - Best looking PCA mapping: sample PCA scatter

  1. パッケージ「ggbiplot」は使用できません(Rバージョン3.5.3の場合) このパッケージをインストールするために見つけたすべてのオプションを試しました。このバージョンのRでは使用できませんか? RStudioでggbiplotを使用する他の方法はありますか
  2. x: an object of class princomp.. choices: length 2 vector specifying the components to plot. Only the default is a biplot in the strict sense. scale: The variables are scaled by lambda ^ scale and the observations are scaled by lambda ^ (1-scale) where lambda are the singular values as computed by princomp.Normally 0 <= scale <= 1, and a warning will be issued if the specified scale is.
  3. Experimenting with the R caret package - using Random Forests, Support Vector Machines and Neural Networks for a classic pixel based supervised classification of Sentinel-2 multispectral images An interactive PCA biplot with ggbiplot and plotly R package
  4. R ggbiplot for PCA results: why is the resulting plot so narrow and how to adjust the width? Question: So I do a PCA analysis, and I usually plotted the results with ggplot2, but I just recently discovered ggbiplot which can show arrows with the variables
  5. ** R ** data ** byte-compile and prepare package for lazy loading ** help *** installing help indices ** building package indices ** testing if installed package can be loaded * DONE (ggbiplot) > So it works as I claimed it would
  6. ggbiplot画主成分图的案例,让人印象很深,但是用起来好像没那么容易,需要在github上下载安装。但是,ggbiplot在安装的时候经常遇到问题。按照网上的安装流程: install.packages(devtools) library(d
  7. According to @jlhoward you can use ggbiplot from the package with the same name. Then the only thing you need to do is to cast your rda result to prcomp result that is known by ggbiplot . Here is a function to do that: #' Cast vegan::rda Result to base::prcomp #' #' Function casts a result object of unconstrained #' code {link [vegan] {rda}} to.

[玫瑰]看到今天的小文,想起昨天在我们6q老师的亲子讲座中,家长问到三个问题,分别是:拖拉;孩子说话慢;孩子总是犯.. Introduction. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components ( Wikipedia). PCA is a useful tool for exploring patterns in highly-dimensional data (data with lots of variables) [R-br] Instalar pacote do github. Caros, Certa vez eu consegui instalar o pacote ggbiplot que considero bem interessante. Não sei se pela atualização do R, ou de mudança de versão do Windows,.. ggbiplot. In an answer to a question posted on CrossValidated, I provided an example of a biplot using the R package ggplot2.I've gotten several inquiries about it, so I've decided to bundle it into an R package and to make it available on github: ggbiplot. To install the package The following relies on the Iris dataset in R, and specifically the first three variables (columns): Sepal.Length, Sepal.Width, Petal.Length.. A biplot combines a loading plot (unstandardized eigenvectors) - in concrete, the first two loadings, and a score plot (rotated and dilated data points plotted with respect to principal components). Utilizing the same dataset, @amoeba describes 9.

package 'ggbiplot' is not available (for R version 3

PCA and factor analysis in R are both multivariate analysis techniques. They both work by reducing the number of variables while maximizing the proportion of variance covered. The prime difference between the two methods is the new variables derived. The principal components are normalized linear combinations of the original variables ggbiplotによるPCAスケーリング. 私は prcomp と ggbiplot を使って主成分分析をプロットしようとしています。. ユニットサークル外のデータ値を取得していますが、データをユニットサークルに制限できるように prcomp を呼び出す前にデータのスケールを変更でき. This data has been discussed in previous tutorials on the principal component analysis. Further in another tutorial, I have used the same data to visualize biplot using ggbiplot function. Also go through some video tutorials to understand the data set, principal component analysis and biplot interpretation — PCA_R & Biplot_PCA_R

The above code will automatically download the ggplot2 package, from the CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network) repository, and install it. Using ggplot2. After installing the package, you can load it using the R function library() Example: Reduced Layout of ggplot2 Plot in R. If we want to remove the background grid, colors, and the top and right borders from our ggplot2 plot, we can use the theme function in combination with the axis.line, panel.grid.major, panel.grid.minor, panel.border, and panel.background arguments. Have a look at the following R programming syntax ggbiplot : Related News. Jun. 1, 2021 - www.dovepress.comBiomarkers for acute respiratory distress syndrome | JIR - Dove Medical Press; www.nature.comSARS-CoV-2 infection is effectively treated and prevented by EIDD-2801 - Nature.com; www.pnas.orgTranscriptional and proteomic insights into the host response in fatal COVID-19 cases - pnas.or Pastebin.com is the number one paste tool since 2002. Pastebin is a website where you can store text online for a set period of time Because ggplot2 isn't part of the standard distribution of R, you have to download the package from CRAN and install it. The Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) is a network of servers around the world that contain the source code, documentation, and add-on packages for R. Each submitted package on CRAN also has a page [

Package ggbiplot in R 3

© 2021 Anaconda, Inc. All Rights Reserved. (v2.35.4 f94b7cfe) Legal | Privacy Policy Legal | Privacy Polic ggbiplotのインストール中にエラーが発生しました - オブジェクト 'digest_impl'が見つかりません - r、github、devtools、ggbiplot ggbiplotをインストールするとき、私は以下のエラーを受け取ります mapping: Set of aesthetic mappings created by aes() or aes_().If specified and inherit.aes = TRUE (the default), it is combined with the default mapping at the top level of the plot. You must supply mapping if there is no plot mapping.. data: The data to be displayed in this layer. There are three options

Biplot of PCs using ggbiplot function - Data Analysis in

  1. Principal component analysis (PCA) in R. PCA is used in exploratory data analysis and for making decisions in predictive models. PCA commonly used for dimensionality reduction by using each data point onto only the first few principal components (most cases first and second dimensions) to obtain lower-dimensional data while keeping as much of.
  2. Learn Data Science from the comfort of your browser, at your own pace with DataCamp's video tutorials & coding challenges on R, Python, Statistics & more
  3. 2) The R base function for PCA is somewhat limited - and I agree that the vegan package is the best choice for ordination analysis, especially for species/environmental stuff. The purpose of this guide was more to show the graphical capabilities of R using base functionality - perhaps pollen was not the best example to showcase this :
  4. Introduction. Red Wine Quality. This datasets is related to red variants of the Portuguese Vinho Verde wine. Due to privacy and logistic issues, only physicochemical (inputs) and sensory (the output) variables are available (e.g. there is no data about grape types, wine brand, wine selling price, etc.)
  5. Provides steps for carrying out principal component analysis in r and use of principal components for developing a predictive model. Link to code file: http..
  6. In order to use this tutorial, you must have R installed in your computer and the packages DEVTOOLS and GGBILOT (by using the command line install_github(« vqv/ggbiplot »)) installed in you R environment. We follow these steps: 1. We import the data from the UAR's website as described in this tutorial. In this example, I will use the data.

We use R principal component and factor analysis as the multivariate analysis method. The aim of this is to reveal systematic covariations among a group of variables. Also, the analysis can be motivated in many different ways. It includes describing the basic anomaly patterns that appear in spatial data sets Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in R Science 15.11.2016. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction technique that is widely used in data analysis. More concretely, PCA is used to reduce a large number of correlated variables into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables called principal components 主成分分析(PCA) ~ggbiplot・bPCA~ 広島大学大学院教育学研究科 難波 修史 第6回Hiroshima.R 2016/02/2

How to interpret ggbiplot() visualization of PCA in R

Many may like R-studio.It is easy to install and has Integrated Development Environment (IDE). However, I personally don't like the IDE function. Just like Adobe Dreamweaver, I was really tired to switch different interfaces in using Dreamweaver to make a website. Since I learned HTML and CSS,I have removed Dreamweaver from my computer. To install R from source, it may experience trouble in. R for Data Science: Import, Tidy, Transform, Visualize, and Model Data by Hadley Wickham & Garrett Grolemund Hands-On Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn, Keras, and TensorFlow: Concepts, Tools, and Techniques to Build Intelligent Systems by Aurelien Géro ## Importance of components: ## PC1 PC2 PC3 ## Standard deviation 1.3442 0.9381 0.5596 ## Proportion of Variance 0.6023 0.2934 0.1044 ## Cumulative Proportion 0.6023 0.8956 1.000

Has anybody had success installing ggbiplot under R 3

  1. Anaplastic meningioma is a rare and aggressive brain tumor characterised by intractable recurrences and dismal outcomes. Here, we present an integrated analysis of the whole geno
  2. GGEbiplot is user-friendly software designed for conducting biplot analysis of research data. It not only generates perfect biplots of all possible centering and scaling models but also provides tools to interpret the biplot in all possible perspectives,
  3. The package provides two functions: ggscreeplot() and ggbiplot(). ggbiplot aims to be a drop-in replacement for the built-in R function biplot.princomp() with extended functionality for labeling groups, drawing a correlation circle, and adding Normal probability ellipsoids. ggbiplot安装和官方示例. R包,建议在Rstudio中使用更方
  4. 相关文章: r - 如何在data.table中写入累积计算. git - git commit目录. git - Git-搞乱后回滚所有本地更改. html - 悬停事件不会在devtools中显示更改的样式,直到我强制将devtools悬停在状
  5. 众所周知,ggbiplot是一款PCA分析结果可视化的R包工具,但是在安装的时候经常会出现一些问题,直接 install.packages(ggbiplot) 他会报错或者警告你没有安装rtools工具,我当时安装的时候就是出现了这个问题,在这里分享一下我的解决方法; 我遇到的问题是需要安装.

패키지 'ggbiplot'을 사용할 수 없음 (R 버전 3.5.3) 이 패키지를 설치하기 위해 찾은 모든 옵션을 시도했습니다. 이 버전의 R에서는 사용할 수 없습니까? RStudio에서 ggbiplot을 사용하는 다른 방법이 있습니까? 수정 : 귀하의 의견을 바탕으로 r-base 의 새로운 Docker. 1 Introduction; 2 Installation. 2.1 1. Download the package from Bioconductor; 2.2 2. Load the package into R session; 3 Quick start: DESeq2. 3.1 Conduct principal component analysis (PCA):; 3.2 A scree plot; 3.3 A bi-plot; 4 Quick start: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). 4.1 A bi-plot; 4.2 A pairs plot; 4.3 A loadings plot; 4.4 An eigencor plot; 4.5 Access the internal data; 5 Advanced feature

r - Plotting pca biplot with ggplot2 - Stack Overflow

vqv/ggbiplot: A ggplot2 based biplot version 0

ggplot2 axis ticks : A guide to customize tick marks and

Chang, W (2012) R Graphics cookbook. O'Reilly Media. - a guide to ggplot with quite a bit of help online here . Author: Fiona Robinson Last updated: ## [1] Tue May 24 10:52:52 2016 Upcoming Events. There are no upcoming events. View Calendar Add Add to Timely Calendar Add to Google. Option 1: Install using the install.packages function as follows: install.packages (filepath, repos = NULL, type = source) # or install.packages (filepath, repos = NULL, type = win.binary) where filepath is a string containing the full path and file name, e.g. C:/tmp.tar.gz or C:/tmp.zip. Option 2 In the R code I specifiy a library (ggbiplot), is it possible that he cannot interpret that or it is not installed. The other R graphics, where no library is specified, are generated devtools. The aim of devtools is to make your life as a package developer easier by providing R functions that simplify many common tasks. R packages are actually really simple, and with the right tools it should be easier to use the package structure than not. Package development in R can feel intimidating, but devtools does every thing it can to make it as welcoming as possible

R语言安装ggbiplot 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 15:13:56 阅读 442 0 ggbiplot画主成分图的案例,让人印象很深,但是用起来好像没那么容易,需要在github上下载安装 Rによる主成分分析. 主成分分析(Principal Component Analysis)は、多数のデータを俯瞰的に見るためのツールです。. 今回はフリーで使える統計解析ソフトのRを使って、主成分分析を行う方法を説明します。. データの準備. 図1. ここでは例として有名な アヤメと.

A. Pengertian Principal Componen Analysis (PCA) telah dipelajari sejak awal abad 20, Pearson tahun 1901 dan Hotteling tahun 1935 telah mempelajarinya melalui metode komputasi praktis (Tipping & Bishop 1999). PCA merupakan suatu metode yang banyak digunakan untuk mereduksi sejumlah dimensi menjadi dimensi yang lebih kecil. PCA akan cukup efektif jika antar variabel asal memiliki korelas An interactive PCA biplot with `ggbiplot` and `plotly` R packages 25 Aug 2018 Post rendered with rawgit.com here. Coefficient of determination for the 'one to one' line 27 May 2018 Post rendered with rawgit.com here. Older Newer ggplot2 is a toolkit for data visualization in R. ggplot2 is a package for the R programming language that focuses on data visualization. It gives you a toolkit for creating data visualizations in R. Keep in mind, ggplot2 is the name of the actual package, but many people use the words ggplot and ggplot2 interchangeably. So, when I'm talking. This example demonstrates how to use geom_text() to add text as markers. It works pretty much the same as geom_point(), but add text instead of circles.A few arguments must be provided: label: what text you want to display; nudge_x and nudge_y: shifts the text along X and Y axis; check_overlap tries to avoid text overlap. Note that a package called ggrepel extends this concept furthe

R 예제 코드 - PCA / Principal Component Analysis / 주성분 분석

CONTRIBUTED RESEARCH ARTICLES 474 ggfortify: Unified Interface to Visualize Statistical Results of Popular R Packages by Yuan Tang, Masaaki Horikoshi, and Wenxuan Li Abstract The ggfortify package provides a unified interface that enables users to use one line of code to visualize statistical results of many R packages using ggplot2 idioms. With the help of ggfortify 4. R command line Because everything is more fun on the command line . R is pre-installed on most clusters, and usually available as a module. module load r - Loads R R - Starts R q() - quits A nice feature of RStudio Server is that there is a terminal tab in the bottom left hand sec-tion By default, R will only search for packages located on CRAN. You can include Bioconductor, R-Forge, and others by using the setRepositories () command from the console. To preserve this setting over sessions, you can also define this in your .Rprofile or other Startup file

I'm still slightly wet behind my R ears and the only solution I can think of is to plot the calibrated space in ggbiplot and the training data in ggplot and then join them, in the worst case by exporting them as svg and importing them in inkscape. Which is slightly complicated plus the scaling is differen Gabriel, K. R. (1971). The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis. Biometrika, 58(3), 453-467. Available in Analyse-it Editions Standard edition Method Validation edition Quality Control & Improvement edition Ultimate edition. What is Analyse-it? What's new Introduction to Statistics with R - Part II February 11, 2019 - 6:00pm to 7:30pm. Learn key R functions for performing statistical inference and handling missing data. Parametric/non-parametric tests and PCA with ggbiplot will be also addressed if time permits. Register No

r - ggbiplot overlapping variables - Stack Overflow

Boxplots are great to visualize distributions of multiple variables. ggplot2 is great to make beautiful boxplots really quickly. Sometimes, you may have multiple sub-groups for a variable of interest. In those situation, it is very useful to visualize using grouped boxplots. In R, ggplot2 package offers multiple options to visualize such grouped boxplots. Let us [ ggbiplot เป็น package อันหนึ่งที่ช่วยให้วาดกราฟ PCA ได้ง่ายขึ้น แต่มันถูกเขียนมาหลายปีแล้ว และก็ไม่ค่อยได้อัพเดทมาสักระยะ เวลาติดตั้งกับ R รุ่นใหม่ๆ( >4. However, my favorite visualization function for PCA is ggbiplot, which is implemented by Vince Q. Vu and available on github. Please, let me know if you have better ways to visualize PCA in R. Computing the Principal Components (PC) I will use the classical iris dataset for the demonstration. The data contain four continuous variables which. Hello DRUGs, I'm new to R and would appreciate some expert advice on prepping files for, and running, PCA... My data set consists of aquatic invertebrate and zooplankton count data and physicochemical measurements from an ecotoxicology study. Four chemical treatments were applied to mesocosm tanks, 4 replicates per treatment (16 tanks total), then data were collected weekly over a 3 month period

Demonstration of how to install R packages from the graphical interface and the command line It's always nice to get good questions in a workshop. It can help everybody, including the instructor, get a bit of extra learnin' in. Every spring I give a ggplot2 workshop for graduate students in my college.The first half is focused on the terminology and understanding the basics of how to put a plot together (I remember as a beginner feeling like I was throwing darts at things to see. Installing R package: Fixing package 'xxx' is not available (for R version x.y.z) warning? By Haktan Suren, PhD In Bioinformatics. Dec 6th, 2015 127 Comments 122271 Views The default version of `install.packages` somehow stopped working for me on latest version of R. In fact this is regardless of the version of R - The older package version needed may not be compatible with the version of R you have installed. In this case, you will either need to downgrade R to a compatible version or update your R code to work with a newer version of the package The Optimum Pokemon Portfolio and Principal Component Decomposition (PCD) using R Posted on July 22, 2016 November 28, 2016 by regressforward in Programming , Statistics I have very recently completed the Stanford Lagunita online course on Statistical Learning, and Tibrishani & Hastie have taught me a great deal about Principal Components

r - how to make the biplot name more clear using ggbiplotr - Plotting average of multiple variables in time-seriesFantásticos gráficos de Análisis de Componentes

R PCA (Principal Component Analysis) - DataCam

  1. 18 Git and GitHub. If you're serious about software development, you need to learn about Git. Git is a version control system, a tool that tracks changes to your code and shares those changes with others.Git is most useful when combined with GitHub, a website that allows you to share your code with the world, solicit improvements via pull requests and track issues
  2. facet_grid in ggplot2 How to make subplots with facet_wrap and facet_grid in ggplot2 and R. New to Plotly? Plotly is a free and open-source graphing library for R. We recommend you read our Getting Started guide for the latest installation or upgrade instructions, then move on to our Plotly Fundamentals tutorials or dive straight in to some Basic Charts tutorials
  3. x=read.csv(file.choose(),header=T) #import data set #CORRELATION PLOT (sthda) library(lattice) #make sure this is installed my_cols <- c(dark red, dark green.

vqv/ggbiplot source: R/ggbiplot

  1. Step 2: Install the package of interest from GitHub. Install the package of interest from GitHub using the following code, where you need to remember to list both the author and the name of the package (in GitHub jargon, the package is the repo, which is short for repository). In this example, we are installing the flipPlots package created by.
  2. Colors in R 1. color name color name white aliceblue antiquewhite antiquewhite1 antiquewhite2 antiquewhite3 antiquewhite4 aquamarine aquamarine1 aquamarine2 aquamarine3 aquamarine4 azure azure1 azure2 azure3 azure4 beige bisque bisque1 bisque2 bisque3 bisque4 black blanchedalmond blue blue1 blue2 blue3 blue4 blueviolet brown brown1 brown2.
  3. ggplot2 Quick Reference: shape. Geoms that draw points have a shape parameter. Legal shape values are the numbers 0 to 25, and the numbers 32 to 127. Only shapes 21 to 25 are filled (and thus are affected by the fill color), the rest are just drawn in the outline color. Shapes 32 to 127 correspond to the corresponding ASCII characters
  4. BioInfoSummer 2015 workshop resource
  5. Welcome to r4stats.com. This site's mission is twofold: to analyze the world of data science, and to help people learn to use R. R is free, open source, software for data science that is similar to the big three commercial packages: SAS, SPSS, and Stata. Welcome to r4stats.com! -Bob Muenchen In the menus under Articles, Continue reading